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Organised by :
ONGC in association with CPCB and IAAPC(DC) March 2-3, 2016


The  training workshop  was  inaugurated  by Sh.  Hem  Pande,  Special  Secretary, MoEF&CC and attended by Sh. M.C. Das, ED (HSE- ONGC), Dr. R.K. Garg, Ex. Chairman, EAC, Sh. P.C. Tyagi, Ex. Chairman, CPCB and Chairman, Accreditation Committee of NABET/QCI, Prof. J.M. Dave, Ex. Dean, JNU, Prof. C.K. Varshney, Emeritus Prof. JNU, Dr. A.L. Agarwal, Ex. Deputy Director, NEERI, Dr. Anjali Srivastava, Ex Deputy Director, NEERI, Dr. J.S. Sharma, GM (HSE- ONGC), Dr. B. Sengupta, Ex-Member Secretary, CPCB and President, IAAPC(DC) besides other senior officials of CPCB, IAAPC(DC) and ONGC. About 80 participants (35 accredited EIA consultants, 35 ONGC officials & 10 scientists / engineers from CPCB / MoEF&CC etc.) attended the Training Workshop. EIA consultants having accreditation from NABET/QCI on chemical industry, oil drilling and oil refinery sector participated in the Training Workshop.

In his welcome address Dr. J.S. Sharma highlighted the requirement of VOC monitoring in ambient as well as stack emission. He also explained the process of data generation by ONGC. In the inaugural speech, Sh. Hem Pande, Special Secretary, MoEF&CC emphasised the need of correct sampling and analysis method for VOC / NMHC especially for baseline data generation for EIA study. He explained that due to unreliable VOC data in EIA Reports, the decision making process for environmental clearance under EIA Notification 2006 is affected. He explained the EIA appraisal process and role of QCI accredited consultants for preparing EIA reports. Sh. Hem Pande, congratulated ONGC, CPCB & IAAPC(DC) for taking the lead and organising two days training workshop on VOC / Hydrocarbon Monitoring and Management. Dr. B. Sengupta in his opening remark mentioned that this training programme has been organized as advised by EAC of MoEF&CC to ONGC and MoEF&CC has also suggested that this type of training programmes to be organised in other parts of the country so that all accredited EIA consultants are trained on VOC monitoring.

During training workshop half day hands-on training was also organised at CPCB Lab at East Arjun Nagar, Delhi where the participants got chance to see the latest methods of  VOC  /  Hydrocarbon  sampling  and  analysis.  The  practical  demonstration  of advanced instrumentations like GCMS, GCATD,Sorbent tube followed by gas chromatography (GC) separation, Non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) detection, Differential optical absorption spectrometry (DOAS), Mass Spectroscopy, Flame Ionization Detector (FID) & Photo Ionisation Detector (PID) were given to participants by CPCB Scientists.

During the training workshop eminent scientists / engineers have given detailed presentation on following topics:-








Emission of VOCs /HC from different

sources &National and International Standard

Dr. B Sengupta, Former MS, CPCB


Measurement of  HC, NMHC in stack and
ambient air

Dr. Anjali Srivastava,
Director grade Scientist, NEERI


Measurement of VOC & BTX and calibration

of equipment and analysers

Dr. S K Tyagi, Addl. Director, CPCB


Measurement techniques for VOC / NMHC

Dr. Rens Zijlmans, MD- Synspec, Netherlands


Baseline VOC/ HC data generation for EIA

Dr. A. L. Agarwal, Former
Director Grade Scientist, NEERI


VOC/HC emission control from Oil

Shri S C Tandon, Ex-IOC/


Health effect of VOCs/HC

Dr. T. K. Joshi, Emeritus
Prof Maulana Azad
Medical College, Delhi


VOC/HC Control from Industries

Prof. Mukesh Sharma, IIT


LDAR Management from oil Industry-
Case studies

Dr Rajendra Prasad, MD,
Ecotech Instruments


Specific  VOC(Benzene, Toluene,Methylene

chloride, Formaldehyde  etc.)
control from industries-Case Studies

Sh.DVS Narayana Raju, Director
Deccan Fine Chemicals


Plants- a source of VOC Emission

Prof. C.K. Varshney, Emeritus Professor, JNU


Air Quality monitoring with special reference
to HAP/ VOC Monitoring

Dr. Abhijit Pathak- Sr
Scientist, CPCB


Techniques for monitoring individual VOCs as discussed during the training workshop Sorbent tube followed by gas chromatography (GC) separation


Solid adsorbents are versatile media for collecting hundreds of types of VOCs. They work by collecting the VOC on the surface of the media, which is usually contained within a tube. Prior to analysis, the sampled VOCs are removed by either thermal desorption or by extrusion using a suitable solvent.

  Non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) detection


All VOCs absorb electromagnetic radiation, while different compounds absorb energy at different frequencies. This means that VOCs have an electromagnetic finger-print which is known as a spectrum. This feature can be exploited for measurements by targeting a peak or peaks in a compound's spectrum.


 Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)


FTIR uses the same basic principle as simple infra red (IR) analysers, but resolves interfering spectra by splitting the beam into two. One beam is then bounced off a fixed mirror while the other is bounced off a moving mirror. This causes the beams to be slightly out of phase. The beams are then directed by mirrors to collide, and the resulting new spectrum creates both constructive and destructive interference in such a way that software can carry out a Fourier transform calculation to identify distinct compounds. All VOCs absorb IR radiation and most can be detected by FTIR.


    Differential optical absorption spectrometry (DOAS)


Most DOAS instruments use either UV or IR absorption to distinguish between different species. The technique can measure a selected handful of VOCs, such as benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene and formaldehyde


    Mass Spectroscopy


In electron impact Mass Spectrometry (MS), organic molecules are bombarded with electrons and converted to energetic, positively charged ions, which can break up into smaller ions. The charged ions are deflected by a series of either electric or magnetic fields to allow the selection of specific mass to charge species. Data is recorded in terms of either a full mass spectrum or by selected ion recording techniques.


    Flame Ionization Detector (FID)


FIDs do not differentiate between different compounds since they respond to carbon-hydrogen bonds, rather than specific compounds. FIDs measure Total Organic Carbon (TOC), including methane. If methane is present in the air sample, the measurement will be for both VOCs and methane.

The main strength of the FID is that it is a useful instrument for measuring total hydro carbon in a gas stream. As a general rule, the response of a FID is mostly influenced by the number of carbon atoms in a sample. Furthermore, FIDs only respond to gaseous or vapour phase molecules which contain carbon- hydrogen bonds.

If the stack gas stream is relatively hot and wet, or if the VOCs are concentrated, then there is a high probability of condensation in the sampling probe / column

when the gas sample touches a surface cooler than that the stack temperature. A FID for stack monitoring should, therefore, have some system for preventing condensation of either moisture or VOCs in the sample line (i.e. the probe / column be equipped with a heated-line, heated detector and a heated by-pass). Where continuous or periodic sampling is carried out with an analyser close to the duct and the sampled gases are above ambient temperature, then the line (and its filter) carrying the sample to the analyser must be heated to prevent condensation and reduce adsorption losses. The lines within an analyser also need to be heated, while all gas chromatographs must have heated injection ports, ovens to heat the column and detectors in heated housings.


    Photo Ionisation Detection (PID)


These work on a similar principle to FIDs, in that the sample gas is ionised. The difference is that the source of ionisation is an intense UV light and not a flame, so there is no need for support gases. They are not as suitable as FIDs for total carbon counting, especially from combustion processes. The other major differences between FIDs and PIDs are the response factors are much more variable than in FIDs and they have much weaker responses for the small saturated hydrocarbons.

They are not used as CEMs because of the problems caused by the high variability of response factors and difficulties with sample conditioning.

During panel discussion, which was chaired by Sh. P.C. Tyagi, Ex. Chairmen of CPCB and panel members were Dr. R.K. Garg, Prof. J.M. Dave, Dr. A.L. Agarwal, Dr. Anjali Srivastava, Dr. C.K. Varshney & Dr. B. Sengupta, the recommendations of the training workshop were formulated considering views given by panellists and also based upon discussion among participants.




Based on technical presentations, discussion at CPCB lab, panel discussions, discussion among participants, following recommendations were prepared by the Panel of Experts during the concluding session of the Training Workshop:-


1.There is an urgent need to prepare simple and cost effective sampling and analysis technique / protocol for measuring the volatile carbon compounds, so that MOEF approved laboratories & EIA Consultants can generate reliable and factual baseline data. The measurement protocol is to be clarified for Total HC, NMHC and VOC separately, so that Lab / EIA Consultant / EAC-MOEF / SEAC- State Govt. can choose the exact measurement requirement for specific EIA Study.


2. Feasibility of using Passive Sampling methodology for TOC/ NMHC/ VOC in EIA Study like Diffusion Tubes exposed to air environment for a particular period needs to be clarified.


3. As various solvents used by chemical industries (Pharma, pesticides, agro- chemical etc.) are responsible for VOC emission, it is recommended that

solvent balance should be made part of consent management and it should be regulated by SPCBs while granting CTO to industries.


4.Fugitive emission standards specially LDAR (leak detection and repair) as notified under EP Act to be reviewed. Also proper protocol for LDAR measurement to be developed.


5.Industry specific VOC standard or atleast Total HC standards for chemical industry should be developed and notified under EP Act for implementation by SPCBs.


6.Evaporative emission control standards for vehicles and petrol filling stations to be evolved on priority. This will reduce VOC / Benzene level in urban air and improve air quality.


7. List  of  HAPs  (hazardous  air  pollutants),  specific  to  Indian  Industry  to  be identified by CPCB.


8. Ambient air quality standards for VOC / Total HC / NMHC may be developed by CPCB / MoEF for which it is recommended to constitute an expert group. The TOR of expert group should include the following:-


A. Identification of HC / VOCs / HAPs based on solvents used in Indian

B. Standardization of sampling and analysis methodologies for these HC/ VOCs / HAPs.

C.Health effects of such HC / VOCs / HAPs based on available knowledge in this area.

D.Review of various solvent recovery techniques and best management practices for VOC emission control followed in industry (India and abroad).

E.Based on above, recommendations on following are to be made by expert group:-

i.  Ambient standards for Total HC/ NMHC / VOCs / HAPs.

ii.  Best cost effective and simple sampling and analysis techniques in Indian conditions to be followed.

iii.  Source specific emission standards for various types of chemical and pharma industries.

9.       The composition of expert group as suggested by participants are as follows:-


Dr. R.K. Garg, Ex. Chairman, EAC, MoEF&CC



Dr. A.B. Akolkar, Member Secretary, CPCB



Dr. B. Sengupta, Ex. Member Secretary, CPCB



Dr. A.L. Agarwal, Representative of IAAPC(DC)



Dr. Anjali Srivastava, Ex. Addl. Director, NEERI



Representative of MoEF&CC



Dr. J.S. Sharma, General Manager (Env.) ONGC



MS, Gujarat SPCB or his representative



MS, Telangana SPCB or his representative



Representative of HSE, IOC



Representative of Pharma / Agro-chemical industry



Additional Director of Airlab, CPCB







The workshop was organised by IAAPC(DC) and more than 100 QCI accredited consultants and experts working in the field of air quality monitoring attended. The following experts have given technical presentations in this workshop.

1.  Dr. B. Sengupta, Former Member Secretary, CPCB
2.  Prof. A.L. Aggarwal, Former Director Grade Scientist, NEERI
3.  Dr. S.D. Attri, Deputy Director General, IMD, New Delhi
4.  Dr. G.V. Subrahmanyam, Member EAC-I, MoEF & Former Advisor, MoEF
5.  Dr. D. Saha, Additional Director, CPCB
6.  Dr. J.S. Sharma, General Manager (Environment), ONGC
7.  Dr. J.K. Moitra, MD, EMTRC
8.  Dr. Mohit Roy, Independent Expert on Air Pollution
9.  Dr. Rajendra Prasad, MD, Ecotech
10. Dr. Bhasker, Representative of EIA Consulting Group
11. Mr. Rajesh Kanungo, Representative of EIA Consulting Group
12. Mr. Sameer Kadam, Representative of EIA Consulting Group

Dr. C.K. Varshney, Emeritus Professor, JNU; Dr. G.V. Subrahmanyam, Former
Advisor, MoEF; Dr. Nalini Bhat, Former Advisor, MoEF; Dr. S.D. Attri, DDG, IMD
&  Dr.  P.B.  Rastogi,  Former  Advisor,  MoEF  chaired  and  co-chaired  various technical sessions.

Based on deliberation the following recommendations are made which was decided to be sent to MoEF / CPCB for consideration:-


1. Only industry specific pollutants (Not all 12 parameters given in NAAQS) to be monitored for generation of baseline data for EIA study. For example:- for Thermal power plants only PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOx and mercury shall be monitored in ambient air and not benzene, PAH, Ozone etc. MoEF may be requested to issue necessary guidelines for all 36 categories of industries required EC under EIA 2006.

2. Number of monitoring stations to be setup for baseline data generation should be indicated in TOR. Also the basis of identifying the locations of monitoring stations should be based on modelling studies and consideration of sensitive receptors close the project site. CPCB may be requested to issue guidelines for the same. The proponent/consultant can source the meteorological data from nearby IMD meteorological station (or some other weather monitoring station). This data can be used to produce one-month wind rose. Based on the site and period specific wind rose 70-80 % time of wind direction(s) can be easily projected. Then covering about 70-80% of time the U/W or D/W direction can be projected.


3. It should be clearly stated in TOR that simultaneous monitoring in all the monitoring locations are necessary for baseline data generation. MoEF may be requested to advise Centre/ State expert appraisal committees that   TOR should  clearly specify that simultaneous (synoptic) measurement of air quality parameters is necessary (i.e. measurement at all sites to be carried simultaneously)  for generating baseline air quality data for EIA study. Also a detailed account of ecological/social features, including receptor(s) identification, prevailing at each monitoring site to be provided.


4. Once the emission data and meteorological data (project specific and location specific) is available then simple modelling can be used to calculate the location (zones) of maximum GLC for different major categories of wind speeds. The locations can be prioritized and fixed accordingly


5. SCREEN3 can be used to estimate ambient impacts from point, area, and volume sources and flares to a distance of 10 km at 100 % of emission load (with and without proposed controls). There should be Significant Impact Threshold (SIT) which can be given under TOR (guidelines can be easily developed based on regional pollution levels) for worst met conditions (F Stability). The set of 54 worst-case meteorological conditions are built in to these SCREEN models.

SCREEN3 simply demonstrating that the maximum predicted impacts (without the addition of background concentrations) are below the acceptable adverse impact levels.

In case the worst case GLC is exceeding the SIT then comprehensive modelling based on ISC3 can be applied.


6. CPCB / MoEF may be requested to issue guidelines / standards for parameters like Hg, VOC, NMHC etc. in ambient air for which no Indian standards exist.


7. In case of expansion projects, where industry is maintaining CAAQMS data, MoEF should allow to use such data for EIA study.


8. CPCB/MoEF  may  be  requested  to  prescribe  “calibration  protocol"  to  be
followed for instruments used for ambient air quality monitoring.

9. CPCB / MoEF should come-up urgently with a certification scheme for air quality monitoring instruments required for air quality monitoring.


10.There may be a porter maintained at MOEF, where in the base line data monitored/reported under the respective project should be posted at the project latitude/longitude of the site with time lines for the project under EC process. The subsequent post project monitoring data (as reported by project proponent at the frequency of six monthly reports) should also be posted at the same latitude/longitude. By maintaining such a porter the spatial & temporal trend of air quality levels could be monitored and checks and balances could be traced for other projects that are planned for future. This could also serve the secondary data base for future projects also and national scenario can be generated.


11.Monitoring of SO2 using Mercuric Chloride in absorbing media should be reviewed (as mercury bearing reagent disposal is an issue).   Similarly monitoring  of  NO2  using  Sodium  Arsenite  in  absorbing  media should  be reviewed. CPCB may consider to introduce new methods for monitoring these 2 pollutants.


12. It was suggested that IAAPC (DC) should organise orientation programme for expert members of EAC / SEIAA on air quality monitoring for baseline data generation for EIA Study. Also the personnel involved in air quality monitoring in field should be properly trained.

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